Bagolaro - Celtis australis

The Bagolaro

The hackberry is a large tree, very robust and long-lived, can reach a height of 25 meters, grows spontaneously and is typical of the Mediterranean area and the western part of Asia. The hackberry is very resistant to the various adversities that nature presents and has a fairly fast growth rate. The trunk of this plant is not very high and has a much larger diameter at the base, when it is young it has a light color and is smooth, as an adult it is very rich in ribs, the primary branches are large while the secondary ones are almost always pendulous and takes on a darker color. The crown is round in shape, very thick and wide, very popular with birds that use it as a shelter. The leaves of the hackberry they are elongated and somewhat asymmetrical, darker in the upper part and have greater roughness; in autumn they become faded yellow and fall off after the first colds appear. The flowering period of the hackberry it runs from April to May, its flowers are very small and come together in the shape of a cluster. The fruits are yellow or light gray drupes while, when ripe, they become darker, have a sweet taste and for this reason most birds are very greedy. The hackberry is used above all for the reforestation of stony or difficult-to-cultivate areas. With hackberry wood furniture, agricultural tools are built and it is excellent for work done with the lathe. It is also widely used as a fuel. This plant also adapts easily to stony soils or to soil rich in limestone. The hackberry is a plant that is particularly suitable for cultivation as a bonsai.


There are some species that differ from the Australis for some characteristics:

Celtis Occidentalis: the bark of this species is dark and with many cracks.

Celtis Aetnensis: it is the typical species of the Sicily region, has a very slow development and never reaches great heights.

Celtis Laevigata: its shortness is red and is widespread especially in North America.


The hackberry likes a sunny position, but adapts well to both cold and hot climates. It prefers stony, limestone-rich and well-drained soils.

The most suitable terrain for the hackberry it is composed of peat, loam, expanded clay and a part of organic matter.


The hackberry multiplies, in a very simple way, by cutting or seed.

Semi-woody cuttings will be taken, as always for this process, from the mother plant, in the spring or autumn period. To favor the appearance of roots, put the cuttings in a solution that favors their growth and always keep the soil at the right degree of humidity.

As for the multiplication by seed, it must be taken from the ripe drupe, the fruit of the hackberry, towards the end of the summer period and will be sown in seedbeds in autumn. The seedbeds should never be exposed to direct sun or bad weather. The first plants will be obtained in the following spring, they will be put in pots and you will have to wait about two or three years before they are strong and robust enough.

Fertilization and Irrigation

In autumn it would be advisable to put some organic fertilizer at the foot of the hackberry.

For the hackberry, in general, the water it receives from the rains is sufficient, also because this plant tolerates drought well, in cases where it is particularly prolonged, it will be necessary to water it, especially if it is a specimen that is not still an adult.


The hackberry pruning should be done regularly, especially to give the crown its already characteristic rounded shape and to allow it to develop uniformly. This plant has a fast growth but only if the operations it needs to develop at its best are carried out correctly and regularly, without the best care even this plant will develop in a longer time or in a more scarce and weak way. During planting it is necessary to be careful of the hackberry roots, because they could grow irregularly and create problems and suffering for the plant. In plants that are already adult and mature it would be better not to intervene often with the elimination of dry or damaged branches.


The properties of hackberry are many and among these we can mention the main ones: astringent, antidiarrheal, refreshing.

The leaves are used in particular for problems with the intestinal system, as regards internal use, you can prepare a decoction and drink two or three cups every day. For external use, it would be an excellent remedy for inflammation of the mouth and throat to rinse with a decoction of the leaves. It is also very useful for soothing and fighting gingivitis and pharyngitis.

Diseases and Parasites

It is a particularly resistant plant and does not suffer particular attacks from parasites.

A large tree that can reach up to 20 meters in height, Celtis australis has a straight trunk with smooth, light gray bark. The thick dark green foliage forms a thick and enlarged crown capable of giving complete shade from May to October. It blooms in late spring with small yellow flowers followed by cherry-like fruits that are brown in color when ripe. Equipped with a strong root system, Celtis australis is firmly anchored to the ground, even in rocky soils. Ideal in gardens, isolated or in groups, or in rows along the avenues.

Latest plants available!

Botanical Name:Celtis australis
Common name:Bagolaro, stone breaker
Guy:Deciduous leaf
Max height:20 m
Max width:10 m
Exposure:Sun, half shade
Frost resistance:-15 ° / -20 ° C
Annual growth:Average
Flowers:Detective stories
Fruits:Brown drupes
Delivery:Potted shrub
AUTO-Period FloweringApril May

Learn more about Celtis australis

Flowering period:
Jan Feb Mar Apr Mag Down
Jul Ago Set Oct Nov. Dec

Botanical Name:Celtis australis
Common name:Bagolaro, stone breaker
Guy:Deciduous leaf
Max height:20 m
Max width:10 m
Exposure:Sun, half shade
Frost resistance:-15 ° / -20 ° C
Annual growth:Average
Flowers:Detective stories
Fruits:Brown drupes
Delivery:Potted shrub

Shipping is free for orders of € 60 or more.
For orders of less than 60 € there is a contribution for shipping costs.
The amount of the contribution depends on the amount of the order and the shipping location, according to the following table:

Order 0 - 19€ 20 - 39€ 40 - 59€ 60+ €
Calabria, Sicily and Sardinia20.95€16.95€11.95€Free

We ship in the days of Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday to avoid possible stocks at the weekend in the courier's warehouses, which could compromise the health of the plants.

The courier will deliver the ordered plants in the following times:

Small and light orders - shipped in cardboard boxes from 1 to 3 working days

Heavy orders - shipped on wooden pallets from 2 to 6 working days

Delivery times may be delayed in the event of exceptional events such as a courier strike, particularly adverse weather conditions or in particular periods of the year such as Christmas, Easter, August or if there are infra-weekly holidays. .

Dig a hole as large and deep as twice the size of the pot. Plant the Celtis australis plants, without putting them too much deep. Fill the hole with a mixture of earth, high quality universal garden soil and slow release organic fertilizer. Cover the clod with about a couple of centimeters of earth. Fill the hole completely with the necessary mixture, applying a slight pressure all around the plant in order to compact the soil.

Bagolaro an imposing tree with a thousand uses


The hackberry comes from the Ulmaceae family. Its scientific name is Celtis Australis, but more commonly it is also called Fraggiracolo, Lodogno, Romiglia, Caccamo or Stone breaker. Its height is on average 12-15 meters, but over the years it can reach 20-25 meters. The Celtis Australis it is part of the deciduous shrubs, which means that its leaves fall in the unfavorable cold seasons and grow back around April-May. It is a spontaneous plant, that is, it is able to grow normally in uncultivated land and therefore without the help of the hand of man, because it is typical of the environment and rooted in the territory. It is also considered very ornamental, so it can be used as an embellishment for gardens, parks or private villas. It is a native plant of southern Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa and is widespread from Spain to Western Asia. It covers the entire Italian territory up to a height of 1000 meters in the mountains.


The hackberry grows a lot slowly and has one of the longest lasting longevities among shrubs, in fact normally it can reach 120-140 years, but it can also live for 3-4 centuries.
Being a species lucivaga (heliophile, which loves the light), the bogolario prefers fresh, well hydrated, subacid soils in heliophilous broad-leaved woods to grow, but is also able to adapt well to rocky and dry surfaces.

Bagolaro bonsai tree (5)

In fact, the name Spaccasassi derives from its particularity in having such strong and massive roots that during development they manage to completely crumble the stones, making space on the territory. It is not prone to diseases resulting from parasites and therefore does not need much maintenance, but in order to grow healthy in the first 5 or 6 years of life, it would be good to bury some fertilizer in the autumn period. The ideal climate in which the hackberry likes to grow is certainly in sunny and warm spaces, however, being a very strong and robust tree, after the first few years, it will be able to tolerate cold, rain and harsh climates well.

Trunk and branches

The hackberry, especially in the developed phase of growth, has a massive, imposing and robust trunk and while in the first years of growth its surface is very smooth, over time they form large ribs. Its wood is very flexible, elastic and tenacious, it is presented in a glossy gray-ashy color, sometimes greenish. Its branches, on the other hand, are of two different types: there are the main ones, which are very compact and of considerable size, and have the task of supporting the thick crown entirely and then there are many small thin and darker-colored twigs, which are equipped with numerous whitish lenticels, that is horizontal streaks that guarantee the easy transmission of oxygen from the external environment to the internal tissues of the plant.

Leaves and flowers

Being a plant broadleaf, the hackberry has numerous large leaves, 5 to 15 cm wide and 10 to 30 cm long. They are elliptical, typically asymmetrical at the base and finely serrated into the surface of the body. The petiole is very short and fine, on the contrary the flap (or lamina) usually has a large and oval shape, with three primary ribs on the body that give a very rough perception to the touch. The apex, on the other hand, is of the sharp type, that is, serrated at the edges, and has a tip that is usually long and folded on one side.

THE hackberry flowers they usually grow with leaves around April-May and are greenish-yellow in color. They can be flowers hermaphrodites, that is, with both seed and pistil, or male only, with yellow stamens and an ovary ending with curved stigmas on the white. On the plant you can recognize both traditional solitary flowers, that is, with a single inflorescence element, or even floral groupings on the apex of small twigs.

Bagolaro fruit

THE fruits that grow from hackberry they are about 12 mm large and are called subspherical drupes, fleshy fruits with a very thin skin, juicy and fleshy pulp and which contain only one seed inside. They are indehiscent, that is, when they reach maturity they do not open to let out their contents, but are caught complete with metacarpus. Of the typical drupes are peaches, cherries, apricots, almonds, plums and berries.

After the flowers have grown in April-May, it takes about five months for the fruit to ripen, and can be picked around September-October. In the first months of growth, hackberry drupes appear white or green, then turn yellow, and when they are ripe they have a dark red-purplish color. The fruits of the hackberry have a very pleasant and sweet taste, and are particularly loved by passing birds. The seeds, on the other hand, are hard and pointed and in the past they were kept and used to make rosaries.

Bagolaro plant and uses

Being very imposing trees, hackberry trees are able to withstand very harsh climates, rains, winds and storms, and are therefore widely used to embellish green spaces. They are mainly positioned on the sidewalks to surround the streets, because they do not introduce too much pollution inside, because they are able to transmit large areas of shadow and also for the simple reason that they can be pruned often if needed. Furthermore, a yellow dye useful for the processing of silk fabrics has always been extracted from the bark and roots. The hackberry wood , being clear and very easy to work with due to its flexibility, it is used in large quantities to create handles, walking sticks, furniture, agricultural tools, carriages, oars and statues. The hackberry foliage, on the other hand, is easily combustible and therefore used as hanging forage. hackberry nerola


According to a popular legend it was Lucifer, while falling from Paradise, who brought the hackberry to earth and it seems that he was holding a branch with a strong grip during the descent. Having the leaves of the shrub well planted on the claws, it is said that they felt the load of hatred and the malignant disobedience of Lucifer, and therefore took the shape of his claws.

A tree a day

Il Bagolaro (Celtis australis) is a very common tree rooted in popular tradition, in Padua it is widespread both as individuals and in majestic rows. The collected foliage and compact foliage give a sense of softness that attenuates the austere majesty of adult specimens.

Via Rezzonico, a side street of Via Gozzi Via Venezia seen from the pedestrian overpass that crosses it near the Stanga. A row of celtis that seem to be formed by soft cushions. Viale Codalunga, at the end you can see Palazzo Maldura The mighty specimens of Via Fistomba on a dazzling May day. On the left, a robinia in full bloom.

The secret of the sensation of softness or softness lies in the dense weave of terminal twigs that is revealed only when the tree is bare.

Via Venezia in winter Piazza Mazzini on a cold winter day. The wind makes the cold so pungent that even the seagulls suffer from it, and seek refuge on dry land. Branching upon branching look like fractal images produced by sophisticated software The entrance to the Treves Gardens The double row of Via Diaz

Very characteristic leaves and fruits help identification.

The hackberry leaf with a toothed edge and a pronounced tip In some individuals very pronounced, as in the plants of Via Rezzonico Leaves in late October

The fruit is a drupe (a fleshy fruit with stone) with a smooth and shiny skin, with a shape and shine of a pearl. Green at first and then tending to purplish black.

The hackberry has many common names, one of them being Perlar (or Perler), and it's easy to see why. Fruits in December The flowers are small and elusive, you need patience and timing to be able to admire them. Here, with very young leaves, in a photo of mid-April. Close encounter in late March The plant is monoecious. But where are the stamens? ... ... pushing aside the sepals of the glass you can see: they are short and remain at the base of the pistil.

Even the bark of this tree is a source of wonder, it remains mostly smooth even in adult individuals, while in shape and color it recalls the mighty legs of the elephant.

This specimen is located in the Giardino alla Rotonda, on the Bastione della Gatta in Piazza Mazzini. A little hidden, to observe it you have to go up and turn behind the circular building, an old aqueduct tank. In the foreground, the characteristic trunk of the Bagolaro, in one of the numerous examples that adorn the Chiesanuova overpass.

If the vision of the rows fascinates for the glance, the observation of isolated individuals impresses with its majesty and elegance.

The Celtis who lives in the area dedicated to the Monument to the Fallen of September 11 (unfortunately demolished in Winter 2019). In the background the bell tower of the Chiesa del Carmine. Città dei Bambini Playground, the garden is home to numerous conifers, the small trees that escort the big hackberry in the center are two prunus (myrobalans). A night view of the Prato della Valle car park. In the background Santa Giustina with the elegant bell tower. Here on a Sunday morning when crowds of pilgrims arrive. Gardens of the Arena where an unmissable colony of celtis australis lives. Here in an early autumn photo. The Gardens are also home to a Celtis occidentalis, the American cousin of ours, but we will talk about this in a future post.

A tree a day

Celtis occidentalis o American hackberry is a tree very similar to its Mediterranean counterpart, the small differences are however significant. In Padua it is present in a few places but all suggestive. Primarily to the Treves Gardens, where numerous specimens live, some fascinating.

The entrance to the Treves Gardens on a beautiful November day. The gardens are only open two hours a day in winter, which is hardly encouraging.

As soon as you pass a splendid Catalpa and reach a Negundo Maple, on the right appears a tree apparently felled but fortunately alive and well. He is just like that, I don't know what his story is, however for how many hardships he has been through now he seems to have reached a splendid state of balance.

Celtis as it appears from the driveway. In the background, the hospital buildings which for a long stretch borders the Gardens. Again ours in June, seen from the opposite side The occidentalis bark cracks deeply, raising long ridges that in this specimen seem to form graceful lozenges. Other individuals live along the fence that divides the Gardens from the Hospital to the south.

The two species also differ in their bearing, the australalis composed and austere, the occidentalis frank and disheveled.

Here and in the following photos magnificent specimens that inhabit the Treves Gardens In the Giardini dell’Arena some Celtis occidentalis live mingled with their cousins ​​along Viale Perlasca. The example of the previous photo in early October Again the Giardini dell’Arena, in the center an occidentalis, on the left a deodara and on the right a Zelcova

The leaves of Occidentalis are smaller than Australis and slightly rounded fruits and flowers show no difference, except, perhaps, in the color of the slightly paler ripe drupes.

On the right an australis leaf, on the left two leaves of occidentalis are lighter and smoother

Another place to find occidentalis in the city is the Garden Theater of Palazzo Zuchermann, reachable from Via Matteotti.

Garden Theater of Palazzo Zuchermann, Celtis occidentalis

"data-medium-file =" "data-large-file =" https: //unalberoalgiorno.files / 2019/01 / celtis-occidentalis-14.jpg? w = 676 "src =" "/> The celtis occidentalis enrich the scenic space making everything very suggestive A stretch of the municipal walls delimits the theater to the west and bears a plaque commemorating a feat of Novello da Carrara. The plaque, almost certainly by Carlo Leoni. On the left a Yucca. A private garden on the Riviera Ruzante

Video: Complete removal of Celtis Australis.

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